EDITORIAL: EPCOT – A History of Compromise, and What That Means for the Epcot of the Future

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Some say it all began when a small fish destroyed a seabase. In 2006, EPCOT’s Living Seas pavilion saw a theming refurbishment to the Pixar film “Finding Nemo” and, ever since, Disney management has looked for more ways to add intellectual property into a park with an ethos resistant to it. With Guardians of the Galaxy moving into the Universe of Energy and officially discontinuing that pavillion’s day-one branding, many believe the edutainment EPCOT they grew up with is pretty much a thing of the past.

The issue with such thinking is to ignore the fact that EPCOT has had a history of compromise baked into its origins and, due to this, we have the hodgepodge of theming and the issues resulting from it that we see in the park today.

Walt’s Dream

On October 27, 1966, Walt Disney stood before cameras to pitch his Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow – a new way to fix the problems that plagued the modern urban environment. An experiment with up to 20,000 participants, Walt’s original EPCOT would be something the world had never seen – and it never would.

By mid-December, Disney was dead and the company, a ship without a captain, steered clear of the unpredictable and went with the safer bet. The Magic Kingdom took priority and it wasn’t until ‘74 that company president Card Walker, tired of hearing about Disney’s final dream, announced that aspects of the EPCOT idea were underway. Even at the start, upper management had diluted Walt’s original vision by a greater extent than any Frozen ride ever could.

“I think Card saw the world as a place to sell movies and cartoons to.” said an associate of Walker’s in David Koenig’s book Realityland, “I don’t think he understood EPCOT.”

A Thematic Quandary

John Hench & Marty Sklar

Over the next eight years, the dream Walt had in mind was whittled down to EPCOT Center, but even that was fraught with questions about what a theme park named after a unrealized city should be. It started as two separate projects – the science and tech expo of Future World and the global culture tour of World Showcase. These were entities unconnected, like mini-parks that existed in conjunction with the greater (and unrealized) EPCOT idea. But these separate concepts couldn’t be sold to sponsors and soon, as Imagineer Marty Sklar discusses in his book Dream It! Do It!, a compromise was made.

“…we pushed the project models for Future World and World Showcase together – creating one project with enough potential participants combined to provide the seed money that suggested the sales effort could be a success.”

From the start, EPCOT as a theme park lacked a cohesive idea that held together all its parts due to monetary demands. While many say that everything falls under a World’s Fair concept, it is important to remember that such events last no longer than a year or two. EPCOT, forced to stick with what was built for far longer, has spent more time with antiquated displays of technology and outdated looks at individual countries than it ever has being up to date and world-conscious. The pushing of these separate projects together might have made EPCOT Center happen, but it sure didn’t foster a singular vision for the park.

Sponsors Make Their Mark

The initial concept of EPCOT Center wasn’t the only time sponsorships have affected the park’s quality or theming. Throughout the years, EPCOT’s model of using sponsors to fund development has put Imagineers with their fantastic blue-sky ideas up against not only Disney’s corporate suits and bean-counters, but also stiff-shirts from outside the entertainment industry, who lack any sense of design or artistry experience.

Take Kodak, a sponsor that demanded an updated version of the classic Journey into Imagination attraction, but failed to pony up enough money to make it even come close to rivaling its predecessor. That was an unmitigated disaster in many ways, and Disney had to revamp the attraction a few years later due to unrelenting guest complaints. Not only that, but Disney’s relationship with the yellow-box film company prevented them from working with Fujifilm on a Japan pavilion Mount Fuji roller coaster. Still not convinced that corporate sponsors haven’t always been a good thing for EPCOT Center? Look no further than how General Electric’s decision to not renew their contract for Horizons left the attraction on a death march until it closed a good five years later.

Of course, sponsorships are not an EPCOT-exclusive concept, but without the use of familiar films or characters for its rides, such as at Magic Kingdom, grey-haired executives were more concerned about their sponsored attraction’s appeal. One can assume this meant more compromise between what Imagineering wanted and what companies like Kodak would foot the bill for.

The Mouse Pays The Bills

If there’s a moment in its history that people should pinpoint for sending EPCOT down the path it finds itself on now, it’s probably an early decision by then-CEO Michael Eisner to allow Mickey and his friends into the park. It’s not like anyone was going to tell Eisner no and the majority of guests welcomed the change. But this was a compromise to fill a vacuum left by the park not having enough of its own characters that were likable and engaging to children (Figment and Dreamfinder were the only two that lasted past the first couple of years, at least until they were sidelined and basically disappeared (thanks Kodak!). With the decision to bring in existing characters, the floodgates opened and it is honestly surprising it took as long as it did for intellectual properties to take over whole pavilions.

But here’s the thing – can you blame Disney?

Well, you could blame Card Walker for making poor decisions in the 70’s, but he actually did what he had to do in order to ensure that EPCOT Center was actually built. Or you could blame Michael Eisner for his decisions in the 80’s, but without him the entire Walt Disney Company would probably not exist today. So current Disney management is faced with a park (in no way the original vision of its creator) with only two distinct “lands” and less sponsors willing to invest year after year. It’s easy to think they should go back to the education-only motif, but it’s simply not feasible in practice. EPCOT Center could have redefined edutainment for generations, but past management consistently compromised with theme and sponsors along the way. So, really, we can’t go back to an uncompromised EPCOT Center because such a thing never actually existed.

What could the future hold? Is there any possibility to get to a happy place where the attractions are great and all guests (including Epcot fanboys) are happy? Perhaps a talking space raccoon and his friends get more people through the doors and the additional ticket sales afford Disney the finances they need to depend less on sponsor money. Maybe a rat who likes to cook can give them the corporate stability to experiment with new non-IP-related adventures. Or maybe they’ll strip Spaceship Earth naked of its glorious Alucobond triangles and turn it into a permanent Death Star. Who knows. But, as we look at what is planned for the future of EPCOT, it’s important to remember that it wasn’t a single big decision in recent years that lead us here, but many the little ones along the way starting almost a half-century ago.


Read more from Nathan Hartman.

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About the author

Nathan Hartman

A sunshine state resident, Nathan is an avid Disney parks wonk as well as a university film professor.

Twitter: @somestuffisaid

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  • Great article! Epcot is doomed unless Disney puts at least 1% into the overall experience of the place, and not treat it like “Magic Kingdom 2” with just money grabs, and all managers locally care about is ‘how much did we make today, and can we send some cast members home to save money? screw the customers.’

  • Bravo! I was at EPCOT Center three days after the park opened and every year since. Your observations and documentation of the history of this park are right on. All we can do is wait and see. Disney needs to trust their imagineers to be able to create non IP related attractions. The most enduring attractions at Disney are those not associated (at least originally) with an IP – Haunted Mansion, Pirates, Thunder Mountain, Space Mountain, Small World, Sosrin’, Living with the Land, Walt Disney’s Enchanted Tiki Room !

  • Agree 100%.Those who shake their heads at Ratatouille, Guardians, Frozen and the like always say ‘That’s not what Walt wanted.’ But neither was the original Epcot that was built. He didn’t want another theme park, he wanted a city. Can we not just enjoy Epcot for what it is and what it is becoming? Or are we all bound and determined to NOT have fun at a Disney park?

    • Well said, Rybread on Cheese! It’s important to remember that the initial “sponsorship” model that was used for EPCOT is broken and is NOT coming back. Companies these days can spend much less money – and reach many more people – using digital media and targeted marketing. Therefore, all of the attractions at EPCOT need to be updated by Disney themselves (not the sponsors). One way to reduce the risk of a new attraction is to tie intellectual property to that attraction.

      It might not be ideal… but EPCOT needs all the help it can get. And we all know that, if Disney does something, it’s going to be fun and high-quality.

    • Totally agree with both of you. Also, to those people that always have the argument of “Walt wouldn’t want this” or “Walt would be rolling in his grave”… well, Walt did want people to attend his parks and enjoy time with their family and friends. Disney has to adapt with the time and what draws crowds in order to keep the parks operational. I’m excited to see the direction EPCOT is going in. And they still have plenty of nods to the original EPCOT, along with a few of the original educational rides and attractions.

  • I don’t blame Card Walker. I thank him and the creators of EPCOT Center. Because for its ~14-year heyday, EPCOT Center was a far richer & more meaningful experience than any other theme park I’ve ever entered. I’m glad I got to experience it in its prime and pity that my kids will never see anything like it (except via virtual reality one day).

    It could have continued to be a great & unique theme park & exposition under the right leadership and Vision. Alas, not to be. It will be a disjointed, IP-based shell of itself moving forward. I’ll avoid new Epcot and remember it as something special.

  • The Opening of Epcot Center was the FIRST time Guests were disappointed at Walt Disney World.

    People were sold on the plan of building the Experimental “City” as was presented for years prior.

    I, for one, had picked out the area where my house was going to be on the giant 3 dimensional map which was located then at the Walt Disney Story, and then was moved to are area above Mission to Mars, as part of the People Mover.

    Folks accepted Epcot, even though it was NOT what was promised, and soft “excuses” were made by Cast Members that Epcot CENTER was only the “center” of what would be turned into that vast CITY which was promised….

    Needless to say that was not going to be the truth….

    The MAIN PROBLEM Epcot has had that from the beginning of the Creation of the “Theme Park”, is it was built upon the “idea” that “FUTURE Technology” was to be the “theme”…

    I was at the age of 22 when Epcot opened in 1982, and my opinion was that they created something which would be VERY HARD to maintain….

    By that I was not thinking in terms of maintenance, but rather I was thinking in terms of “FUTURE Technology” is something that is ALWAYS up ahead and changing.

    Today’s “Future” is Tomorrow’s “Reality”.

    When you build a Theme Park based on HISTORY, or that has Timeless Attractions, it BECOMES HISTORY.

    History is NEVER CHANGING…

    The Future is ALWAYS CHANGING….

    To keep Epcot within the Theme of Future technology it require constant updates.

    Add the Corporate Sponsorship to the equation and you have things that were NOT “Future” themed, but well liked, being taken away…

    Good Bye Kitchen Kaberet… Good Bye Figment and Dream Finder with Journey into Imagination… Good Bye the World of Motion…

    I understand WHY Disney wants Corporate Sponsors, but when you get right down to it, Disney makes enough Money to NOT require Corporate Sponsors.

    Guest did PAY to get in there RIGHT??

    Remember when Easter Airlines sponsored If You Had Wings?? and the Delta Airlines took over and made it Delta Dream Flight…??

    How about Monsanto sponsoring America the Beautiful and the Magic Carpet Around the World…??

    And the Diamond Horseshoe Review presented by Pepsi Cola, and Delmonte Ketchup…

    These ATTRACTIONS were presented as FREE in a time when all other Attractions required Guest to buy tickets.

    The only exception at that time was the Country Bear Jamboree presented by Pepsi Cola and Frito Lay, and STILL required an admission ticket.

    Once General Admission included all Attractions, the “Sponsored” Attractions were no longer “FREE”, and that started the idea that Sponsor Support was money right in Disney’s Pocket.

    The only thing that saved the Great Movie Ride from being shut down years before it was, is because TMC came in as Sponsor paying some of the bills.

    Ok, we all understand that a BUSINESS is there to make money, but the very idea that unless an Attraction has an outside Corporate Sponsor paying the bills to run the Attraction, then the Attractions should close is an INSULT to EVERYONE who PAID to get in the Park.

    What is the price paid for Admission for??

    it should easily cover the costs of running the Park.

    Case in point is Epcot; lose Kraft, and close Kitchen Kaberet….

    Loose Kodak and close Figment and Magic Journeys….

    Lose GE and close Horizons…

    Lose Met Life and close wonders of life…

    Lose Exxon and close Universe of Energy…

    Lose United Technologies and close the Living Seas…

    How many times was Space Ship Earth re-themed with sponsor changes??

    AT&T Siemons

    Remember Sperry and the Arouter Computer Review??

    Gone.

    The very idea that an Attraction, ANY Attraction, should be simply CLOSED and sit there for years, or be torn down, because there is no Corporate Sponsor to pay for it is a real problem…

    Disney should pay for it… after all YOU the GUESTS are already paying for it with the price of your ticket.

    And once Corporate Disney learned that even if the close Attractions, the Guests will still come ond even pay higher admission prices, began the thinking that Attractions are not really needed.

    Build another restaurant, or Gift store, as they will MAKE more sales.. but don’t build another Attraction as that will cost money to operate!

    How about a Theme Park with NO ATTRACTIONS!….

    Only Shops and Restaurants and places to spend money!!

    There you have the birth of Disney Springs!

    It is all an evolution…

    It happens as a result of what has developed… and was accepted by the Guests.

    Epcot was a DREAM….

    Dreams are PURE…. Reality is NOT.

    • randyland ….. indeed sir indeed . let us not forget the Christmas overlay that was removed @ country bear or the pretty lights @ Christmas as you arrived in world showcase forget the name @ epcot . to save money we were told. sometimes it is the little things that can mean the most to people.

  • Epcot needs to be a traditional theme park instead of a makeshift worlds fair. They need to theme each Future World pavilion as lands or section off similar themed pavilions as lands. The corporate business campus just doesn’t fly into today’s theme parks where singular IP can occupy an entire land.

    Each Country Pavilion needs actually rides instead of show and filler attractions. Cultural exhibitions are boring. The world got smaller. Countries are not as exotic as they used to be especially with an influx of immigrants who bring their traditions into the USA.

    Ultimately, with the demise of the corporate sponsorship model, Disney is the only corporate sponsor that matters. It is to be expected that more Disney IP will be included in most major attractions in Epcot or other parks. Say goodbye to generic science and cultural attractions that are hard to keep fresh and updated.

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